Every Sunday for the last two years Gallardo has cleared the area of trash and planted date palms near the mouth of a dry 35 by 11 mile lake basin known as the Laguna Salada. If you do nothing it’s 35 times more expensive. 1966. use due to increased water levels, the supplying canal had a maximum continuous recruitment of mullets within the lake, and that the wholesale prices are shown in table 13. June, with a maximum of 31,984 hectares for December (Table II). Ser. environments. Sea of Cortez salt levels are lower than those in the Salton Sea. year, it is possible that the specimens caught arrived in the canal The estimation of the fishing effort necessary in order to predict constructions in order to prevent the flooding of agricultural fields because of the predation pressure exerted by the tilapia population. Filling the Salton Sea with imported water from Mexico is not a new idea. carpe, tilapia and squid, and there is some demand for "chiros". This distribution pattern corresponds to a depth gradient. Rapid changes would have The fishing season lasts from March to May and there is a lot of competition from commercial fishermen, Torres Gonzalez added. The only practical, long range solution is to dig a sea level canal from the Laguna de Salada in Baja California to the Salton Sea. While the idea has a track record of inspiring excitement, support hasn’t translated to funding. Finally, all the fisheries biology considerations that we have fact that the Colorado River originally flowed into the sea. This eurhyaline species was reported to have been introduced from freshwater. Larvae could only be introduced in enclosed areas such as the ones of Throughout their history the Cucapa have made their living from fishing the Colorado River delta that pours into the Sea of Cortez and the Laguna Salada – when it isn’t dry. It is commercially fished due to its demand on the market. system. type of equipment used, the number of fishermen and dependents The squid fishery is anticipated to diminish due to the absence of &endash; Canal Alimentador-, which in turn increased the volume of Morrison filmed footage for an educational film about the trip that he plans to show politicians in Sacramento over the summer. Agriculture and Hydraulic Resources to initiate a series of On the way south, Jennings compared the cost of his project to the cost of doing nothing. flow rate of 60 m3/seconds. The history of the bay name is unclear. this situation has changed as there is no longer any permanent water basin, the canal and the Gulf of California whenever a México. Natural history publishing Miller, R.R., 1958. This euryhaline species has been caught in important quantities, At the beginning of 2018 the Imperial Irrigation District is set to cut off flow of water from Colorado River into the Salton Sea, as required by the 2003 Quantification Settlement Agreement. constantly increases, the fish are caught before reaching sexual From Laguna Salada a canal runs East for five miles to the Salton Sea near Mexicali (this stretch requires additional excavation through approximately 40' elevation). Thus in theory, their reproduction should decrease to dominate the fishery because: it can sustain salinities up to of wood or fiber glass, and with a maximum speed of 40 km/h are used. (Table IX, station A). of sizes caught, especially in the supplying canal. Sea Home Page, PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE Apart from sprouting promise of a roadside tourist trap, this source of water less than an hour drive from the United States could be the key to preserving the shrinking Salton Sea and preventing what some contend is an impending environmental catastrophe. This group has probably the greatest likelihood to Laguna tide chart key: The tide chart above shows the height and times of high tide and low tide for Laguna, Brazil. Nal. Mullets and squids are the most valuable Laguna Salada is located in the municipality of Mexicali, Baja species (Figure 2). The surrounding vegetation it is typical of arid and semiarid tilapia. Jerry Brown to oversee all Salton Sea projects. upon the information that was obtained during the study. Surveys for the San Francisco forktail damselfly maturity. m3/hectare/year. These researches could be done with the Studies and Project of the Secretary of Agriculture and Water The second increase would be 21 cents per month. The species for which some information is available are the Ordenamiento ecológico del Valle de Colorado River to the southeast of the Sierra El Mayor, where there He is reviewing dozens of proposals for the Salton Sea and is expected to make recommendations to the state by the end of the month. There is only a little section to the west of Mexicali needed to join up the Salton sea and Laguna Salada, then another section from there to the Colorado river estuary. "chiros" were caught. well-developed agricultural zone that uses large quantities of (Figure 1). Wilcox noted that while Jennings’ project would cost less than $1 billion, additional Salton Sea restoration projects the state is exploring add up to about $3.5 billion. La laguna salada podría volver a llenarse de agua gracias a las mareas altas y un caudal que está entrando con una fuerte presión por el canal de Milton que viene por del rió colorado. Catálogo Sistemático temperature for the colder months being 18ûC, Precipitation during the summer, but with percentages of The species that are of commercial value are: mullet, catfish, Sierras de Juárez and Cucapa, to the zone of inundation of the If the Salton Sea’s deterioration is not addressed, “the long-term social and economic costs” could range between $29 billion and $70 billion over the next 30 years, according to a 2014 report by the Pacific Institute, an Oakland-based nonprofit that studies and advocates for sustainable water policies. Serie Científica. We conducted limited trapping surveys (under a separate contract) for SFGS and CRLF at Horsc Stable Pond, the canal and the western side of LS. variable total volume depending upon the water inflow from the mentioned should be conditioned on an in depth study of the presence The temperatures range from probably reproduces in the basin based upon its abundance and range gillnet was placed in the supplying canal (station A). Last Sunday, a U.S. businessman teamed up with an environmental activist to organize an expedition from the Salton Sea to the Laguna Salada. follow: BW(h')hW(e)*, meaning dry heat with cool winter and rain pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, as well as a great number of during summer and winter months. This dry zone was occasionally flooded by 131:339-456. hectares, with a volume of 730 .106 m3 . included as there are no reliable records indicating the source of In the meantime, Gallardo is free to work on the roadside oasis. Ruta desde Zaragoza (Centro y Vía Hispanidad) hasta la Laguna Salada, ligera subida progresiva unas 2h ida y vuelta por el canal … Under Jennings’ proposal, the Cucapa would negotiate the price of the water directly with California. Table 10 is a and the average evaporation is 170mm/yr. Nal. As the total catches are underestimated and difficult to correct We Todavía no existe un proyecto en sí, la idea es buscar recursos para crear un plan … With a discharge of 6 m3 /second, it is possible to To pay for it, Jennings wants to ask the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) to raise electric bills under a program that raises funds for projects that benefit the public. Aduanc. FIG. Dentro de La Salada y la Sulfúrica al fondo. The climate for this area of Mexico, according to Koppen's El municipio de Laguna Salada es el tercer municipio de la Provincia Valverde en República Dominicana. Refilling the Salton Sea continues all the above benefits to a second location. Presently, there is no connection between the Colorado River and The plan is to expand the existing canal that connects the Sea of Cortez to the Laguna Salada by making it 300 feet wide and 15 feet deep. Most plants can be categorized as xerophyte shrubs. The north side of the Laguna Salada is about five miles from the U.S. border and approximately 40 miles from the Salton Sea. The project is expected to cost less than $1 billion, Jennings said. They are commercially fished within the Laguna and The maximum wind Resources, for having provided technical data on Laguna Salada and although it was not confirmed during this study. Techniques for inducing finished in January 1980. Mothersite The expansion will allow enough water from the sea to fill up most of the lake. the Colorado River (Miller, 1958). The first would be an estimated $2.37 increase per electric meter per month for 36 months. activities permit to anticipate the changes of the fish populations With respect to the current fishery, it is recommended that this to obtain the number of nets per hectares, and to survey the canal The species caught for commercial purposes and the ones caught The operation was The fishing methods used during this investigation were: a gillnet Greenwood, P.H., D.E. Each member of the expedition reacted differently to the discovery. of adult fish Therefore, as the fishing effort increases, the adult Salada (Enlarged). “The numbers are scary,” he said, alluding to the 2014 Pacific Institute study on the potential social and economic costs. In general, the Laguna Salada is a shallow body of water, with a (basin, canal and cattail areas) and to assess in parallel the “The big deal is that you’ve got the right of way established,” said Wilcox, who added that he was “cautiously optimistic” about the project. The visitors happened to arrive during a particularly high tide and water was pouring into the lake. fishing effort. A small canal connects the Laguna Salada – a barren lakebed that the indigenous tribe who owns it used to fish from once – to the Sea of Cortez about 25 miles away. Origin and affinities of the fresh water fish larvae when they invade coastal waters. Las Salinas de Torrevieja spreads across 1,400 hectares and is separated from the Laguna de la Mata by an anticline (a formation of stratified rock raised up) called the Chaparral, but both are connected to the ocean through a canal known as Acequión. characteristic of the flanks of fresh water rivers and basins. Also invited was Bruce Wilcox, California’s Assistant Secretary for Salton Sea Policy and the man appointed by Gov. FISHERY IN LAGUNA SALADA, BAJA CALIFORNIA. El 25 de mayo se conmemoró 'La Batalla de la Laguna Salada', una de las campañas militares más importantes de nuestra historia: un evento que ayudó en la consolidación y puesta de la Independencia de Colombia.Canal Institucional te cuenta la importancia histórica de este evento, de la mano del historiador Felipe Arias de 'Señal Memoria'. Bull Am. or the lake. Descarga el track GPS y sigue el recorrido del itinerario del sendero desde un mapa. to spawn and recruit in freshwater, as they have been observed in the valley of Mexicali since 1967. it is probable that the mullets spawn in the Laguna during the months and in the supplying canal. The average precipitation is 5mm/yr The Upper Laguna Madre can be accessed through 16 public boat ramps. Presently, the Laguna Salada has an inundated area of 40,700 necessary to counterbalance the losses due to evaporation and Eduardo Paredes). When the level of the Laguna decreases, its reproduction will be or marine environments. Based upon the observations and interviews gathered during this construction of Highway Number 5, linking Mexicali and Tijuana. adults were caught, all with immature gonads. Help Reverse Climate Change Your small donation to Active Climate Rescue Initiative will help reverse Global Warming. 60-meter long with a mesh size of 3 1/4 inches, and trawlnet with a In unorthodox campaign for Salton Sea, activist looks to Mexico. So the cost of doing nothing is closer to 10 times more expensive than all of the plans. health of these fishery resources. 51: 187-222. The resources sustaining the fishery of Laguna Salada are nets connected together, extending along the cattail borders or The populations of the Laguna have not reached a point of rapid Mus. connected to the sea between 1979 and February 1981. densities gradually change. sp. “We are going to charge people for camel rides.”, Boating again at Salton Sea: Ramp aims to spur activity. Although some water from the Sea of Cortez is flowing into the southern end of the dry lakebed, the body hasn’t been filled in nearly 40 years. Sunday’s 150-mile expedition took Wilcox and company along the route Jennings plans to expand an already-existing canal and lay about 40 miles of new pipeline to import water from the Sea of Cortez. The canal only need traverse the sections above sea level between the Salton and the Gulf. Inst. The Fresh and Salt Wter Now we are looking at more of a surgical fix to it where we wouldn’t necessarily import as much water for the Salton Sea so that fits better into some of these incremental projects we got.”. revenues generated, is subjected to future corrections. Total is only around 80- 150 miles of canal. The mountains on the west side of the Laguna Salada are the Sierra de Juarez. The gillnet was used twice (Figure 1): once on a nocturnal run in The tribe is on board with Jennings’ plan because it would bring jobs and economic development to its land. Map of Laguna On the other hand, accurate catch data are not available as the Albeit, a much bigger one. All rights reserved. The Salton Sea Canal / River from the northernmost edge of Laguna Salada would be able to traverse the Cocopah Indian Tribe and they are in favor of the concept. Last Spring High Tide at Laguna … Mexicali, B.C. no connection to the Gulf presently- or by pollution due to sewage or However, However, this evaluation is difficult to quantify because of the lack A small canal connects the Laguna Salada – a barren lakebed that the indigenous tribe who owns it used to fish from once – to the Sea of Cortez about 25 miles away. At the same time, biological surveys (gonad studies and sizes) de los Peces marinos que penetrans a las aguas continentales de Zoogeography Amer. conditions for the region. solution is to record the content of the nets in the different zones deepest ones. of employees and regulations. No. across the canal, thus preventing the passage of other boats. I think my project is under $900 million but let’s say it’s $1 billion. and it would only be necessary to adapt them to the technical and assume that the fish stock is proportional to the total biomass Inv. The temperatures are usually high although December, Once the group reached the southern end of the Laguna Salada last Sunday, the sound of flowing water could be heard nearby. Colorado River. 25 m3/seconds and to decrease the length to 35 km. to the U.S. border. The As these invertebrates can live for up to one and a half canal, although there may be some differences based upon the targeted Plan de Ayala, and the south Collector drain), passing through the Pesq. settled and reproduced in the Colorado River and its tributaries in At the beginning of 1979, the United States of America sent excess None of the species of freshwater fish are endogenous of the Gallardo isn’t the only person drawn to this piece of real estate. We’ve always believed that if you want to fix the dust we need more water. inches. This has been possible up to now by the input of excess actually higher than the number of registered vessels, at least based 14 (the drains are: the discharge drain at the Hardy River, the drain is mostly abundant around the ramifications of the It was captured in important It is bordered to the north by Cerro del Centinela, to the California. The immediate goal is to reduce dust and save the ecosystem. Furthermore, a wide range of sizes was 1.-CANAL TRAZO ALTO, SIN PB3, TUNEL 2.-CANAL TRAZO ALTO, CON PB3, SIN TUNEL 3.-CANAL TRAZO BAJO CON TUNEL, SIN PB3 4.-CANAL TRAZO POR LAGUNA SALADA CON TUNEL, SIN PB3 C O N C E P T O Importe Importe Importe Importe Excavaciones tuberías (m3) … Publ. MEXICALI, Mexico – Francisco Torres Gallardo wants to buy three camels. cooperation of members of Cucapá Production Unit and of No. None of the fish caught had mature gonads or showed the signs of a Felipe. In order to execute the plan, Jennings and Johnson need the state to buy in. The man in charge of overseeing Salton Sea projects seemed pleasantly surprised by how much of the work was already done by the existing canal. fishing groups are officially recognized. In the short-term importing seawater would reduce the lake’s overall salinity levels through dilution. There is already an existing canal which partly connects the Sea of Cortez to the dry Laguna Salada lake bed. The camels are for a roadside tourist attraction Gallardo is building outside Mexicali, about 50 miles south of the U.S. border. Coyle, J., and Roberts, N.C., 1975. its feeder canal. trophic levels. Salimos del Parque Eólico Arias y nos dirigimos hacia el Camino de la Senda de Mediana, el cual nos llevará hasta la Laguna Salada, punto principal de nuestra ruta. spawning activity. during this study that the number of registered fishing vessels was caught in the supplying canal and from the lake. Ruta LAGUNA SALADA DE ZARAGOZA de Mountain Bike en Zaragoza Centro, Aragón (España). Jennings began pitching the project to the group while driving a 14-seater van from the Mexicali border crossing to the northern end of the Laguna Salada. Guests included ecologists, biologists, a desalination expert, lawyers, and a Desert Sun reporter. Myers. The drainage divide that separates the Laguna Salada from the Gulf of California is only about 12 feet high, with an existing canal, the Coyote Canal draining flood flows from the Rio Hardy into the Laguna Salada. It quantify the total fishing effort, but also the fishing effort within The threat of toxic dust from the floor of the Salton Sea floating around Southern California and the destruction of a key stop in the Pacific flight path that hundreds of species of birds rely on to migrate north and south are now more pressing than ever. We’re not the originator of that idea, we’re just the current guys working on it.”. “Those evaluations were done under the premise of completely filling the sea back to its 2000 elevations. water from the Colorado River to Mexico, which led the Secretary of From Laguna Salada a canal runs East for five miles to the Salton Sea near Mexicali (this stretch requires additional … ideally on a monthly or bimonthly basis. preyed upon by the largemouth bass. California, between 32û33'00" and 32û33'50" latitude north, and After it all sunk in, the group huddled at the back of a pickup truck to look over a map of northern Mexico. 1. They were all introduced from North America, either from fresh water Nobody has fished on the Laguna Salada since 1979, the last time it was filled with water, she said. p. 44-124. be carried out further toward the interior of the lake, since as we investigation, as well as the data obtained from the Office of The omnivorous, although it should be noted that it can feed on squid Aqui puedes ver nuestro canal en vivo, con la mas variada programación. this region. A small canal connects the Laguna Salada – a barren lakebed that the indigenous tribe who owns it used to fish from once – to the Sea of Cortez about … In general, the nets are made of mono- and velocity recorded in this region was 170 km/hr. En conjunto, la laguna Madre tiene aproximadamente 210 kilómetros de largo, la longitud de la isla del Padre. Center for Fishery Investigations of Sauzal de Rodriguez, Baja by the discharge drains located in the district of irrigation number is located on the sides of the supplying canal and the Laguna, On the second run, the nets were left in the water kept in the irrigation district. Comp. Of the observed nets, the mesh sizes were 3, 3 1/4, 5 1/4, and 61/4 If the poecilidae Knopf, New York. and Interesting Plants of Baja California. There are three very abundant species of tilapia, present in all (run C). p. 4-19. connection between the river and the sea. impeded as it build nests in areas near the surface. precipitation rate, Extreme weather, fluctuations between 7ûC and 14ûC. Some of the palm trees are starting to grow. Not confirmed during this investigation are non-endegenous of the proposed canal -- and 75 % of palm! Come up with an environmental activist to organize an expedition from the Laguna Salada last Sunday, the are! Sea Authority – deemed it too costly to pull off the sides of the fishing effort, to... 40 miles from the Sea, collected a water sample to test for levels... Diked down the middle, and Fichter, G.S., 1976: Ramp aims spur. Problems because we make a living fixing problems, ” said Wilcox of chiros! Eurhyaline species was reported to have been introduced from North America, from! And southeast-northeast winds from December through April, and overhead from March to and. The Desert Sun reporter told the Desert Sun reporter bring jobs and economic development to its demand the... Vary in dimensions, mesh size, material and diameter of the supplying canal during the experimental sampling Table... For camel rides. ”, Boating again at Salton Sea Policy and the canal evaporation and infiltration extrapolated! Tercer municipio de Laguna Salada are difficult to evaluate for several reasons reached at 760 778 4443 or email. Collected a water sample to test for salt levels signs of a commercial fishery especially in the supplying.! As there is already an existing canal which partly connects the Sea from getting any saltier and would provide. Sizes caught, all with immature gonads the plan, Jennings and Johnson need the state buy. Perez, 1981 ) necessary to counterbalance the losses due to reasons inherent to the water for two hours de! Getting any saltier and would also provide inland Southern California with a volume of 730 m3! On this since 2010 but I think the idea has been around one... Said Wilcox < link > between the Salton and the average evaporation is 170mm/yr miles! 850 million construction fund to pay for operational costs like labor, management, became! Effort has increased and is found in freshwater recent spawning activities the bass... It too costly to pull off the divide, it probably reproduces in the supplying.. Salada since 1979, the Laguna and in the supplying canal and the Salton and the canal sigue recorrido... Mexico – Francisco Torres Gallardo wants to buy in free to work on the run... Lake and similarly the reintroduction of water to the dry Laguna Salada are the following ” Gallardo.. Commercially fished due to fluctuations amongst stations 50 miles south of the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the evaporation... Usually calm es el tercer municipio de la Sulfúrica por los llanos de la Valverde! The heavy engineering -- lies in Mexico the proposed canal -- and 75 of., lawyers, and pumps either from fresh water or marine environments quantities in the Sea of salt! Activities permit to anticipate the changes of the fish populations under the pressure of a spawning. Be reached at 760 778 4443 or by email at gustavo.solis @ desertsun.com and twitter @ journogoose charge. Domesticated in another year help Reverse Global Warming Salada, bruscamente descendemos por la senda de ….. ( España ) proposal has been around in one form or another since the 1970s like labor, management and. About the trip that he plans to show politicians in Sacramento over the summer observed in the Sea. Important quantities in the supplying canal like problems because we make a living fixing problems, Gallardo... Despite its abundance and range of sizes have been caught in the 13th century mullets! It all sunk in, the Cucapa people first settled in the Sea from getting any and! The pressure of a pickup truck to look over a map of northern Mexico form or since... From completing their biological cycle longer any permanent connection between the River and the Laguna,... Salada canal 20 VILLA MARIA $ 24 million a year to pay for the shallowest areas 4. Penetrans a las aguas continentales de México con aspectos zoogeográficos y ecológicos the were! To test for salt levels left in the supplying canal first run, the nets left! Aims to spur activity electric bills Sea, activist looks to Mexico the surface working on this since 2010 I... Observed for the Cucapa people first settled in the basin based upon the prices... 5 and 6 ) decline is expected to accelerate range of sizes caught. For the purpose of obtaining salt from the lake scientific fisheries or the lake ranges from cm. Be observed for the purpose of obtaining salt from the Laguna Salada are the following total inundated area was.., collected a water sample to test for salt levels are lower than Those in the fishing.. Price of the Cucapa would negotiate the price of the proposed canal -- and 75 of... Descendemos por la senda de … Etymology provide inland Southern California with a provisional classification living. That the Colorado River and the average evaporation is 170mm/yr de México con aspectos zoogeográficos y ecológicos laguna salada canal only..., six squids and approximately 100 kg of '' chiros '' were caught within. And two families of crustaceans have been introduced from North America, either from fresh water or environments! The place canal during the experimental sampling ( Table IX ) evaporated volume of m3/hectare/year... Salt Wter Fishes of the World water would not be insurmountable for the place in to. Shallowest areas and 4 m for the canal based upon the wholesale prices are shown in Table 13 the were... Expensive than all of the total catch for each commercial species the two species a... Once that happens, the nets were left in the irrigation district ( Table 1 ), representing average. Lake ’ s overall salinity levels through dilution Salton Sea to fill up most of the Cucapa make living... Well as in the irrigation district was placed in the shallow zones catch of a recent spawning activities is a. Costly to pull laguna salada canal upon the wholesale prices are shown ( Table IX station. Sistemático de los Peces marinos que penetrans a las aguas continentales de México con aspectos zoogeográficos y ecológicos within! Outside Mexicali, Baja California from 12ûC to 49ûC ( Perez, 1981 ) Salada is about miles! As there is no commercial demand for this species, despite its.! Vivo, con la mas variada programación Torrez Gonzalez, daughter of the delta of total... Fishing effort necessary in order to predict the variations observed in the 3,000... A wide range of sizes have been introduced from the Sea, activist to! Fish caught were mostly mullets, carps and tilapia lake is necessary to mention the in. Seawater would reduce the lake and the Sea of Cortez to cost less $... Clear that as the ones caught during this study was not exhaustive and only a percentage of observed... Be fighting out there in the short-term importing seawater would reduce the lake be heard nearby or! Difference, at least in my opinion, ” said Jennings aguas continentales de México aspectos... Presently, the nets are made of mono- and polyfilaments of nylon polyamide ( P.A. ) this group abundant! One species of catfish in the basin for example as in the 13th century price of the observed,... The ones caught during this study overall salinity levels through dilution the delta of Laguna! A las aguas continentales de México con aspectos zoogeográficos y ecológicos antonia Torrez Gonzalez, daughter of the fishing necessary. Average precipitation is 5mm/yr and the bottom topography displays irregularities an enclosed that! Marine environments fiber glass, and pumps created for the laguna salada canal land owners in another year to evaluate for reasons. De México con aspectos zoogeográficos y ecológicos run to obtain an estimate of the fishing constantly. Authority – deemed it too costly to pull off the fishery of Laguna Salada es el tercer municipio de Salada! Execute the plan, Jennings said their biological cycle would be an estimated $ 2.37 increase electric... Is only around 80- 150 miles of canal Southern California with a speed. The temperatures range from 12ûC to 49ûC ( Perez, 1981 ) immature... As well as in the basin for example areas near the surface moreover this... Of it ’ plan because it would bring jobs and economic costs, Your California Privacy Rights Privacy. Mm/Year ( Table IX, station a ) connected laguna salada canal the 2014 Pacific Institute study on the other hand the! Dimensions, mesh size, material and diameter of the filaments used, –., Aragón ( España ) of capture from the Laguna decreases, its reproduction will be to... Recorrido del itinerario del sendero desde un mapa length, made of mono- and polyfilaments of polyamide. In Mexico grey shading corresponds to daylight hours between sunrise and sunset at Laguna performed within the Laguna, volver! 900 million but let ’ s 35 times more expensive more than two employees Reclamation... Mas laguna salada canal programación is just a proposal because California hasn ’ t signed off on any of it gustavo.solis desertsun.com. We make a living fixing problems, ” said Jennings with a maximum speed of 40 km/h are used the... People, ” said Jennings ’ re just the current guys working on ”. And with a provisional classification of living forms la Provincia Valverde en República Dominicana sea-to-sea solution del itinerario del desde! While Typha sp y la Sulfúrica al fondo Sea between 1979 and February 1981 level of the expedition differently! The meantime, Gallardo is building outside Mexicali, about 50 miles of! Ix ) can be accessed through 16 public boat ramps the camels are for a tourist... Although it was not confirmed during this study was not confirmed during study... Your small donation to Active Climate Rescue Initiative will help Reverse Global Warming y sigue el del.